Infection with this disease begins at an early age; As it affects children between the second and fifth years, and the rate of males being affected by it is more than that of females, and the first signs of it are in the patient's complaint of problems with night vision or in dim light, so that the night blindness disease is gradually and begins in the edges of the retina heading towards the middle, and upon exacerbation This disease, the patient feels that his lateral vision is shrinking, as if he is looking at things through a tube or a fine cylinder, and in an advanced stage of the disease the visual acuity and strength are affected, but it does not reach complete blindness, and this condition is accompanied by infection with white water in the eye. Night blindness or retinitis pigmentosa We can define retinitis pigmentosa as an eye disease; The victim cannot see things during the night, especially when moving quickly from a bright place to another, and it is known that seeing in a dim light or a dark place is an important test to know the health of vision. The mechanism of occurrence of night blindness This disease is caused by a defect in the photoreceptors in the retina, where in the retina of the eye there are two types of photoreceptor cells, namely: Bacilli: They are found at the edges of the retina, and work in dim light, and aid in the peripheral field of vision. Conifers: They are found in the center of vision, work in natural lights, and give vision its strength and sharpness, and help to distinguish colors. And numbness occurs when these bacilli in the retina are injured, which weakens the strength of vision in low light, especially at night, as well as the field of side vision decreases, and as the disease progresses, the cones are affected as well, which leads to a decrease in visual acuity. Weakness, but reaching this level of weakness takes a long time ranging from 30 to 40 years, and in more severe cases, atrophy of the veins of the retina and the optic nerve. Causes of night blindness: There are many causes that lead to night blindness, and the most important of these reasons are: • Vitamin A deficiency in the blood as a result of not consuming a complete diet containing vitamin A, which leads to an imbalance in the retina of the eye, which is responsible for dark vision in light. • Hereditary causes, which are believed to be caused by a genetic factor that causes the deficiency of the pigment in RODS cells in the retina of the eye. Glaucoma eye disease (glaucoma); Where the internal eye pressure rises to a higher rate than normal, which leads to damage to the tissues of the optic nerve, and thus the eye loses its ability to see. Symptoms and signs of night blindness Among the obvious symptoms here are the following: Inability or difficulty seeing in the dark or dim light. Red and inflamed eyes. • The emergence of gray bubbles on the white of the eye. Blurred vision. Dryness of the cornea of the eye. Types of night blindness Night blindness is divided into two types: The first: caused by problems with nutrition, specifically vitamin A deficiency. The second: hereditary or congenital, and discoloration occurs in the edges of the retina, resulting in poor vision, especially at night, and this weakness may be exacerbated to be during the day as well. Methods of prevention of night blindness • Eat rich foods that contain vitamin A components, such as vegetables, especially carrots, because they contain carotene, and yellow fruits such as peaches and apricots. The importance of taking this vitamin is due to the fact that it participates with protein in the formation of the retina of the eye, and thus its deficiency leads to slow formation of the pigment of vision. • In the event of hereditary night blindness, marriage to relatives should be avoided. • Breastfeeding the child for two years from the mother. • Increasing the intensity of light in the external environment helps improve the degree of vision. Treatment methods of night blindness: The treatment of night blindness depends on the type of factor that causes it, as follows: • If the cause is vitamin A deficiency, as in the case of malnutrition, then treatment is by taking vitamin A by mouth in doses of 2500 - 5000 international units per day, with an increase in this dose in cases of pregnancy and lactation. • Treatment of eye diseases in the event of infection, such as glaucoma or cataract; Because with her treatment it treats night blindness. • Wearing eyeglasses is one of the most important early treatment methods. Cope with your night blindness To deal with your night blindness, do the following: • Avoid all kinds of radiation, ask an optician to put an antireflective coat on your glasses so as not to be harmed by bright objects. • Put your glasses on your eyes. If you suffer from slight short-sightedness that you do not have to wear them all day, it is preferable to wear them after sunset. Say goodbye to neon lights. Most people find themselves better seeing yellow lights rather than neon. • Read in a well-lit environment. If an ophthalmologist diagnoses you with macular degeneration, you need the largest amount of light, especially when reading, so it is preferable to use a reading lamp to provide you with adequate light when you need it, especially in the early stages of the disease. • Eat your food carefully, as it has been proven that nutrients rich in antioxidants help to control the conditions responsible for night blindness. Therefore, it is recommended to eat nutrients, the most important of which are vitamins A, C, and E, zinc, and beta-kerotin, which are It turns into vitamin A in the body. • Avoid car lights. Driving a car after sunset is a challenge for everyone who suffers from night blindness, especially when the lights of upcoming cars shine towards him, so try to avoid them to prevent momentary blindness. • Wear sunglasses before entering the tunnel. In the daytime, put sunglasses about one and a half meters before entering any dark tunnel to help your eyes respond to the darkness. When you enter the tunnel, remove the sunglasses because you will be able to see in the dark.